Artificially high risk perception of outside world:
Sanitation workers feel uncomfortable about jobs outside of their generational occupations because of an inherent unfamiliarity with other jobs.
- In our interviews, workers expressed a lack of references of people who do non-sanitation work; perceived cost of movement is very high.
Strong associations at work:
Workers develop strong community relationships with other workers from similar sub-caste backgrounds, and thus find it even more difficult to leave these jobs.
Workers preconditioned to working in groups shouldn’t be offered individual self-employment opportunities; need community-based awareness programs and role models.
This insight applies to all types of unsafe sanitation work:
What this entails: Unblocking and cleaning sewer and wastewater drains
Frequency: Complaint-based, seasonal (rainy season) and occasionally for preventive maintenance
Location: Urban areas
What this entails: Emptying, collection and transport of human waste from septic tanks on an on-demand basis
Frequency: De-sludging frequency varies greatly, ranging from 6 months to 10-15 years
Location: Primarily urban, mostly unplanned localities
What this entails: Cleaning faecal matter from railway tracks and platforms,railway toilets and platform toilets
Frequency: several times a day
Location: Rail network and railway stations
What this entails: Emptying of dry/single-pit latrines primarily in rural areas; daily collection and transport/emptying of fecal matter
Location: Primarily rural
What this entails: Maintaining and operating sewage and faecal sludge treatment plants on a daily basis
Location: Urban, across the ~527 STPs/FSTPs in India
What this entails: Maintaining public/community toilets (often insanitary) on a daily basis
Location: Rural and urban CTCs, mostly in slums; public convenience shelters
What this entails: Operating and maintaining school toilets on a daily basis
Location: Schools – rural and urban
What this entails: Cleaning open drains and road sweeping, often encountering fecal matter due to open defecation and insanitary latrines connected to drains
Location: Urban – drains alongside roads
What this entails: Cleaning toilets in middle-high income households/institutions, encountering insanitary conditions at times
Location: Urban areas