Population growth, urbanization, unauthorized residences etc. putting increasing stress on legacy infrastructure:
- Poor planning in cities that aren’t ready for increasing load-In Delhi, sewerage facilities cover ~ 75% of the population, with resettlement colonies and illegal settlements linking their domestic waste outlets to drains/sewers illegally.
Sewer systems unable to keep up with changing nature of waste:
- Misuse of the sewer facility and improper covering of manholes causes much of the blockages; materials that cause blockage include construction material, solid sludge from industry, kitchen waste, sanitary pads, etc.
Systems have not been upgraded:
- Outdated construction materials of sewers leading to friction, narrow dia. which does not allow materials to pass through) to account for this unintended waste, given civic sense will always be an issue.
Unintended linkages between sewer and drain networks:
- Lack of planning and demarcation of responsibilities between public works and sanitation systems leads to linkages when maintenance is done; storm water finds its way to sewage system and unnecessarily increases its load.
Sanitation systems pre suppose availability of willing labour:
- Frequency of manholes along the line, feasibility of entry into chambers indicate that systems assume manual intervention.
Need to upgrade existing infrastructure.
This insight applies to 1 type of unsafe sanitation work:
What this entails: Unblocking and cleaning sewer and wastewater drains
Frequency: Complaint-based, seasonal (rainy season) and occasionally for preventive maintenance
Location: Urban areas