Generational ties to occupations restrict their thought processes, businesses are associated with unreliable income and they can’t afford to sustain dips.
- Only ~10% of urban SC community members are successfully in self-employment opportunities.
Wary of customer facing businesses:
Workers are hesitant to pivot to businesses with high customer interaction (e.g. tea and food stalls, etc.) because they fear customers wouldn’t buy from them.
Access to finance and training:
Poor access to financial instruments, lack of business models and acumen
- Loan-based schemes are failing because banks are unwilling to guarantee sizeable loans, and sanitation workers are unable to present viable business models, have a lack of training and experience .
Loans are not sufficient for successful self employment, need for comprehensive support packages.
This insight applies to all types of unsafe sanitation work:
What this entails: Unblocking and cleaning sewer and wastewater drains
Frequency: Complaint-based, seasonal (rainy season) and occasionally for preventive maintenance
Location: Urban areas
What this entails: Emptying, collection and transport of human waste from septic tanks on an on-demand basis
Frequency: De-sludging frequency varies greatly, ranging from 6 months to 10-15 years
Location: Primarily urban, mostly unplanned localities
What this entails: Cleaning faecal matter from railway tracks and platforms,railway toilets and platform toilets
Frequency: several times a day
Location: Rail network and railway stations
What this entails: Emptying of dry/single-pit latrines primarily in rural areas; daily collection and transport/emptying of fecal matter
Location: Primarily rural
What this entails: Maintaining and operating sewage and faecal sludge treatment plants on a daily basis
Location: Urban, across the ~527 STPs/FSTPs in India
What this entails: Maintaining public/community toilets (often insanitary) on a daily basis
Location: Rural and urban CTCs, mostly in slums; public convenience shelters
What this entails: Operating and maintaining school toilets on a daily basis
Location: Schools – rural and urban
What this entails: Cleaning open drains and road sweeping, often encountering fecal matter due to open defecation and insanitary latrines connected to drains
Location: Urban – drains alongside roads
What this entails: Cleaning toilets in middle-high income households/institutions, encountering insanitary conditions at times
Location: Urban areas